Git Internals 101
Yeah, yeah, another article about “how Git works.” There are tons of these already. Personally, I'm fond of Sitaram Chamarty's fantastic series of articles explaining Git from both ends, and of Git for Computer Scientists. Maybe you'd rather read those.
This page was inspired by very specific, recurring issues I've run into while
helping people use Git. I think Git's “porcelain” layer -- its user interface
-- is terrible, and does a bad job of insulating non-expert users from Git's
internals. While I'd love to fix that (and I do contribute to discussions on
that front, too), we still have the
git(1) UI right now and people still get
into trouble with it right now.
Git follows the New Jersey approach laid out in Richard Gabriel's The Rise of “Worse is Better”: given the choice between a simple implementation and a simple interface, Git chooses the simple implementation almost everywhere. This internal simplicity can give users the leverage to fix the problems that its horrible user interface leads them into, so these pages will focus on explaining the simple parts and giving users the tools to examine them.
Throughout these articles, I've written “Git does X” a lot. Git is incredibly configurable; read that as “Git does X by default.” I'll try to call out relevant configuration options as I go, where it doesn't interrupt the flow of knowledge.
By the way, if you think you're just going to follow the many excellent git tutorials out there and that you won't need this knowledge, well, you will. You can either learn it during a quiet time, when you can think and experiment, or you can learn it when something's gone wrong, and everyone's shouting at each other. Git's high-level interface doesn't do much to keep you on the sensible path, and you will eventually need to fix something.